Adulterated Specimen: When a sample is tampered with by adding unnatural substances or foreign items to cheat a drug test.
Accession Number: A unique identifier for tracking and identifying samples during testing.
Alcohol Confirmation Test: Conducted with an Evidential Breath Testing Device to measure alcohol concentration.
Alcohol Screening Device: A tool for saliva or breath alcohol testing approved by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Alcohol Screening Test: Analyzes urine, saliva, or breath to detect prohibited alcohol levels.
Alcohol Testing Site: Designated locations for submitting samples for alcohol testing.
Blind Specimen: A control sample with concealed identity for quality control.
Breath Alcohol Concentration (BAC): Alcohol content in breath, measured in grams per liter.
Chain of Custody: Records the handling of a sample from collection to disposal.
Collection Container: Holds urine, saliva, or body fluids for drug testing.
Collection Site: Location where subjects provide samples for analysis.
Collector: Collects, inspects, and fills out the Chain of Custody form for subjects at the collection point.
Confirmation Test: Follows an initial immunoassay test to confirm drug or metabolite presence.
Confirmed Drug Test: A laboratory result from a confirmation test was sent to a Medical Review Officer.
Consortium/Third Party Administrator: Coordinates and provides drug testing services to employers.
Control Line: A line appearing in the control section of an instant drug test, indicating test validity.
Creatinine: Produced when muscles break down and is used to detect sample dilution.
Cutoff Level: Minimum drug metabolite quantity for a test result to be positive or negative.
Designated Employer Representative: Removes safety-sensitive staff from duties, handles drug testing, and receives results.
Diluted Specimen: A sample manipulated to reduce drug concentration.
DOT: The Department of Transportation sets standards and regulations for drug testing.
DOT Drug Test: Urine drug test for safety-sensitive DOT staff.
Drug Metabolites: By-products of drug metabolism detected in tests.
Ecstasy (MDMA): A recreational drug derived from amphetamine.
EtG: Ethyl Glucuronide, a direct ethanol metabolite detectable up to five days after alcohol consumption.
ETS: Ethyl Sulfate, a non-degradable biomarker tested alongside EtG.
Evidential Breath Testing Device: Approved by the NHTSA for breath alcohol testing between 0.02 and 0.04.
GC/MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirms drug presence in a sample.
Immunoassay: Initial biochemical test to detect drug presence and concentration.
Initial Drug Screen: The first immunoassay test in a drug screening process.
Initial Validity Test: First test to determine specimen interference (dilution, adulteration, or substitution).
Invalid Drug Test: Nullified due to interference or other issues.
LC/MS: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for confirming drug presence.
LC/MS/MS: A confirmation test combining mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography.
Negative Dilute Result: Sample dilution without exceeding specific limits.
Non-Negative Specimen: A urine sample indicating substitution, adulteration, invalidity, or drug presence.
Normal Result: A laboratory outcome signifying a negative test.
Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance: Manages drug and alcohol testing for the Department of Transportation, ensuring program implementation and information provision.
Opiate (OPI): A category encompassing illicit (heroin) and prescription (morphine) drugs derived from the opium plant, Papaver Somniferum.
Paruresis: Known as a “shy bladder,” it describes individuals anxious about urinating with others nearby, posing challenges for urine drug tests.
PCP (Phencyclidine): Also called “angel dust,” an anesthetic developed in the 1950s, later used as an illegal drug through snorting, smoking, and injecting.
Positive Test Result: A laboratory drug test confirmed by GC/MS, indicating drug or metabolite presence.
Preliminary/Presumptive Positive Drug Test Result: The initial stage where a saliva or urine specimen tests positive, requiring further lab analysis due to potential false positives from over-the-counter medications or foods.
Primary Specimen: The lab initially checked the sample for drug traces and used it for validity testing.
Specific Gravity: The urine-to-water density ratio typically ranges between 1.010 and 1.025 in drug testing.
Specimen Container: A sealed container for transporting specimens from the collection site to the laboratory.
Split Specimen: A sample divided into two or more portions to ensure result integrity. If the first portion is positive, the other can be tested to verify the result’s accuracy.
Substituted Specimen: A specimen from someone other than the intended subject, potentially different urine or another substance.
Temperature Strip: A strip to check if the urine’s temperature falls within the normal range. Tampered urine will not meet the temperature range (90-100°F or 32-38°C).
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol): The principal psychoactive component of cannabisWHO (World Health Organization): A UN agency specializing in international public health.